That medieval French cooks too this warning seriously and rarely roasted their beef is evident in the large stocks of beef bouillon that our recipes imply was always on hand for ready use in other preparations." ---Early French Cookery: Sources, History, Original Recipes and Modern Adaptations, D.
A grill was convenient for flat meats, a spit for larger cuts.
Roasting, the application of direct heat at close proximity, was appropriate for a cold, moist meat such as pork because the open fire would warm and dry.
Medieval physicists--or physicians--told their contemporaries that cooking added either warmth and moisture or warmth and dryness to their foodstuff that was cooked: the cook chose his cooking method according to the inherent nature of the foodstuff and any need he had to correct this nature.
F j b, Poched egges are better than egges rosted hard or rere. 86-87) [Medieval France] "Modern physicists tell us that cooking changes the chemical characteristics of a substance.
This early reference notes this stage is unwholesome [Markam]. Medium/medium rare were introduced about this time. Originally only of eggs: slightly or imperfectly cooked, underdone. And indeed, among winged creatures they can eat with pleasure wood pigeons still running with blood and scarcely touched by fire.' Bruyerin advocated the middle way, warning that there would be a penalty to pay for eating either half-raw or 'melting' meat.
"A Chicken in Every Pot" airline chicken American bison & buffalo bacon bear beef beef Stroganoff beef Wellington beefalo blood booya brawn Brunswick stew burgoo carpetbag steak Chateaubriand chicken chicken a la King chicken & waffles chicken burgers chicken cacciatora chicken chasseur chicken Cordon Bleu chicken Francese chicken franks chicken fried steak chicken Kiev chicken Marengo chicken nuggets chicken parm chicken salad chicken sandwich (fast food) chicken Tartare chicken tikka masala chicken Vesuvio chicken Wellington Christmas goose city chicken confit coq au vin corn dogs & Pronto Pups corned beef coronation chicken country captain chicken crab croquettes cube steak deep fried turkey deer donkers dormice duck duck a l'orange finger steaks foie gras frankfurters fried chicken goats gravy Guinea fowl ham head cheese horsemeat hot dogs Irish stew Jamaican Jerk jambalaya jerky kebabs King Ranch chicken Kobe beef lamb lamb & mint Lebanon balogna lobster London broil marrow bones meatloaf & meatballs minced meats & hash mincemeat pies mole poblano mutton mutton birds New England Boiled Dinner osso buco pastrami paupiettes Peking duck pemmican picnic ham pigeon pigs in Blankets porcupines pork & applesauce pork & beans pork & sauerkraut pork steak pot roast pulled pork Salisbury steak sausages of Italy scallops shark steaks sheep shrimp Sloppy joes SPAM spiral carved ham squab squirrel steak au Poivre steak Diane steak Tartare Swedish meatballs sweetbreads Swiss steak tempura Tetrazzini Toad-in-the-hole tri-tip steak Turducken Turkey & cranberry sauce turkey & dressing turkey bacon unturkey venison wiener schnitzel zoo animals According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "rare," counterbalancing "done" describing the doneness of meat, descends from the word "rear," meaning imperfectly cooked or underdone. The earliest print reference to the word "rare" relating to meat cookery is circa 1615. They commend the wether almost raw, but pork cooked until it almost melts [that is, until it falls apart].
Late 19th century food scientists examined meat doneness, offering temperature/time recommendations according to type of meat, cut, and method of cooking. Meat thermometers (1930s) took the guesswork out of judging doneness. When today we ask for our steak well done, medium or rare, we are repeating a choice that the Renaissance writers revived from Hippocratic writings.
Like their 17th century predecessors, early 20th cooking texts warn against rare meat. Black and blue (aka "Pittsburgh style" steak surfaces in print in the 1970s. In 1626 Pierre Duchatel noted the physical reactions to be expected from meat prepared in each of the thre ways '(1)...well-Boiled meat is suitable to the digestion. (2)...those meats that have been medium boiled or medium roasted add moderately to vigor and digestion.
Oxford English Dictionary RARE Etymology: Originally a variant of rear adj.1 As a result of the lowering influence of r on preceding vowels in southern varieties of English, rear remained homophonous with rare adj.1 at least as late as the 17th cent. This gave rise to the variant rare, which retained the early modern pronunciation in standard English (compare the current pronunciation of e.g. (3)...rawer meats are conduucive to vigor but in fact rather poor for the digestion.' Because bloody meat was thought to increase one's vitality and zest, eating half-raw meat became intertwined with the goal of arousing the body at table." ---Acquired Taste: The French Origins of Modern Cooking, T.
The leading lights like eef wee cooked, though some of them nevertheless devour it bloody after the fashion on the Cyclops.
29-30) [16th-17th century France] "In 1560 Bruyerin avowed that he had 'more than once' seen '[half-cooked meats devoured so that blood almost flowed from the mouths of those who were eating.